Hordeum murinum, commonly known as smooth barley or false barley, is a species of grass.

It can grow to 30 cm in height and its unbranched spikes can reach 10 cm long. It is quite widespread and common. It flowers during May through July in mainly coastal areas. It produces small, dry nutlets and its leaves can be 8 mm wide with short, blunt ligules.

Hordeum murinum is an annual winter species whose seeds germinate and develop in the spring. It is also referred to as wall barley and are tetraploids. It is distinct from other species of the genus because of its morphology and molecular genetics. It is also distinct because of the barriers it has with the Hordeum taxa when it comes to its ability to cross with it.

Hordeum murinum complex is the most widespread of all the other Hordeum species. The center of distribution of Hordeum murinum is in the Mediterranean area, Central Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. A greater quantity of dry material is produced with medium precipitation and better distribution. Precipitation is the most important factor in the production of seeds for this species. In the years that are drier with early or late rainfalls, there is no chance of re-seeding for this species. The species uses a greater part of its reproductive resources for seed production, allowing it to adapt to different water conditions. Controlling the seeding rate favors a high-quality strand of barley. The sowing rate for wall barley increases when seed production and forage increases. This helps to obtain ideal and sustainable forage and seed yield in rangelands of Jordan. The height of the plant and protein content does not respond to seeding rates, but the height of the plant and protein content does vary with years. Anatomical characteristics of leaf blades differ between the taxa. This weedy species along with hare barley and smooth barley can be hard to control.

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